Tag Archives: Gson

REST with Java in practice

RESTful web services are generally hyped these days – and for many good reasons: among others, the fact that they are easily consumed by almost any kind of client – browsers, mobile apps, desktop apps etc.

One technology stack for building restful services in a Java environment could comprise Jersey, Gson and Guice (nice alliteration, by the way…). Without prior knowledge to any of these technologies, me and my team managed to successfully establish a RESTful web service consumed by for example this website.

I will briefly introduce these 3 frameworks:

Jersey and JAX-RS

Jersey­ is one of several implementations of the JAX-RS interface – the Java API for RESTful web services.

Jersey provides a servlet that analyses an incoming HTTP request by scanning underlying classes for RESTful resources, and selecting the correct class and method to respond to this request. The RESTful resources are defined by decorating classes and methods with the appropriate JAX-RS annotations.

If you for example have a UserService class that you want to expose through a RESTful API, you can wrap it in a UserWebService class and decorate this class and its methods with JAX-RS annotations:

The @Path annotation specifies on which (relative) URL path this method will be invoked. The @Get annotation specifies that the http method GET has to be used and the @Produces annotation declares the format of the response.

So, the following http-request:

GET http://localhost:8080/myservice/api/user/list

will invoke the GetUserList() method, which basically is a pass-through to the UserService.getAll() method, and return a response with a list of users in JSON format.

JSON support using Gson

One of the decisions you have to make when establishing a RESTful service is which representation formats (media types) to support. Very often JSON will be the obvious choice – especially if the services are to be consumed by browser-based clients which typically use JavaScript.

In order to produce and consume JSON you need a serialization mechanism that turns a Java object into a JSON document and vice versa (under-the-hood the representation bodies will very often be POJO objects). Our choice was to use Google Gson for this purpose.

You simply need to implement the two interfaces javax.ws.rs.ext.MessageBodyWriter and javax.ws.rs.ext.MessageBodyReader, and decorate the implementing classes with the JAX-RS @Provider annotation. Here is the writer:

And here is the reader:

Guice as DI container

In a previous post I showed how to use Guice as a DI container in a Jersey application. So, what is left now is to bind the Gson writer and reader – ass well as other types, such as the RESTful resource classes – in the Guice injector:

To summarize, a well-proven technology stack for implementing a RESTful web service in Java comprises Jersey­ as the REST framework, Google Guice as the DI container to support dependency Injection and Google Gson for JSON serialization and de-serialization of the representation body objects. The service can be deployed on for example a Glassfish server.